While legal marriage is the normative standard in American culture for couples who live together, have children, purchase property, and plan to remain together, it is by no means the only option. Over the last decade, the rate of people in cohabiting relationships in the U.S. has steadily increased, particularly among those over age 50.
If you and your partner own property together (or plan to), it’s important to establish clear guidelines and legal documentation as to who owns what. Massachusetts law does not recognize equitable distribution in non-marital relationships. If, for example, you purchase a home together and are each contributing to the mortgage, be sure that the deed reflects your intentions. You may hold property as tenants in common, granting to each a one-half interest that can be passed to heirs or sold separately. This is the default title for unmarried co-owners under Massachusetts law. Alternatively, you may name yourselves as joint tenants with a right of survivorship, allowing property to pass without a will.
Similarly, spell out all your agreements regarding both shared and separate property, including bank accounts, cars, savings and investments, retirement, health insurance, household items and gifts. Many lawyers recommend drawing up a cohabitation agreement, which is enforceable in Massachusetts courts and can establish terms for how you manage financial details of your relationship, what interest each partner has in the other’s income and property, and how you will divide your assets and debt should the relationship end. This kind of agreement can be extremely useful in filling many gaps covered under marital law, as well as day-to-day matters like how monthly bills will be paid.
Paternity and Parenting
You and your partner may have children together, or you may have children from prior relationships. Agreements about your respective responsibilities for children should be covered in an agreement, as well, although Massachusetts law applies the same custody, support and visitation rights and obligations whether parents are married or not.
One key distinction for unmarried couples is that there is no presumption of paternity. Without legal recognition of paternity, In Massachusetts, the mother has sole custody of a child born out of wedlock. The best and most straightforward way to establish paternity is for the father to sign the birth certificate immediately following birth. Parents may also agree to paternity.
Where a child is biologically related to only one of the partners, there will be no legal parental relationship unless the second parent legally adopts the child (just as with a married stepparent).
It’s critical to cover your bases when cohabiting in planning for aging, disability and death because the default in a non-marital partnership is that you have no legal relationship. You will need several key documents to establish one:
- Will— Without a will, Massachusetts law governs who inherits your assets— your children, parents, siblings, or other nearest blood relative. Even more importantly: If you have children under the age of 18, you may designate in your will whom you wish to assume custody upon your death.
- Durable Power of Attorney—This document will allow your partner to access your financial accounts and take care of bills in the event of your incapacity.
- Health Care Proxy—Also in the event of your incapacity, allows your partner to make health care decisions on your behalf.
- Beneficiary Designations—Naming a beneficiary on retirement accounts, insurance and other assets allows these items to transfer to the named person without having to go through probate, whether or not you have a will.
If you’re in an unmarried cohabiting relationship, the best way to protect your mutual interests is to discuss these legal protections with an experienced family law attorney.