At What Age Should I Draw from Social Security?
It’s not an easy decision to make when planning retirement in Pennsylvania
on April 19, 2018
Updated on June 2, 2022
Generally, Americans who have worked for 10 or more years have gained eligibility for taking social security retirement benefits. The monthly benefit amount they receive once retired will be based on their lifetime earnings—higher earnings, equal higher benefits.
To calculate their benefit, the Social Security Administration (SSA) looks at the 35 highest earning years of their work record. Those earnings are indexed or adjusted to account for changes in average wages over the years and cost of living adjustments. Then a formula is applied to arrive at a benefit amount.
Besides lifetime earnings, the decision of when to begin drawing benefits may have the greatest effect on the amount someone receives each month from social security retirement. Retirees can take benefits as early as age 62, or wait until the social security retirement age of 70. The range of monthly benefit amount will vary widely depending on when the benefit is taken.
What is full retirement age?
Retirees will receive their full benefit amount if they retire and claim social security benefits at their full retirement age. Under the current law, full retirement age for anyone whose year of birth is 1960 or later is 67 years old. For those born before 1960, the full retirement age occurs sometime during their 66th year.
The SSA indicates that a rule of thumb on when to take the benefit is: If a senior needs the social security benefit money for retirement income, take it; but if a senior can afford to wait, take it later. The Social Security Administration claims that the total amount of claim benefits a retiree will receive should work out about the same regardless of whether they take the benefit early or late. Factors to weigh in determining when to take the benefit include:
Current health and life expectancy of the retiree
Retiree’s family health history
Condition of personal finances of the retiree
Marriage status of retiree
Retirees can begin receiving social security retirement benefits as early as age 62. However, their benefit will be reduced for taking it early. For someone turning 62 in 2018, the benefit will be reduced 26.7 percent from the full retirement age benefit. If a full retirement benefit amount is $1,000, an early retirement monthly benefit will be reduced to $733. The amount of the reduction decreases each month the senior gets closer to full retirement age.
People can also choose to work beyond their normal retirement age and delay taking their benefit. This can benefit the person in two ways:
An extra year of earnings may increase their monthly benefit amount
Receive delayed retirement credits for each year delayed beyond full retirement age
If retirement is delayed until age 70, the retiree can expect an increase of around 30 percent of their full retirement monthly benefit amount—again, using $1,000 as the full retirement benefit amount, the retiree can expect a monthly benefit of around $1,300. Delaying retirement the full eight years beyond early retirement at age 62 amounts to a benefit amount nearly double the early retirement benefit.
Delayed retirement credits end at age 70, so there is likely no incentive to delay beyond then.
What about spouses?
Spouses may earn their own benefit or, if their earnings result in lower benefits, can choose to take a spouse’s benefit amount equal to 50 percent of the higher earning spouse. This also applies to divorced spouses who were married for at least 10 years. The benefit to the divorced spouse will not affect the amount to the recipient or their spouse. If the higher earning spouse passes away, a surviving spouse will receive 100 percent of the social security income of the deceased spouse. That amount depends on whether the deceased spouse has retired early or delayed retirement. This also applies for a divorced surviving spouse; they will also receive the social security payment the deceased spouse had qualified for if married at least 10 years.
The SSA cautions that social security retirement is only one part of a proper retirement plan, which should also include income from pensions or retirement accounts, savings and potentially part-time employment. To determine the best time to apply for social security retirement, those nearing retirement should contact an experienced Pennsylvania estate planning attorney.