Fighting Securities Fraud in New York City

NYC attorneys share insights on when plaintiffs can pursue security fraud litigation

By Michael Y. Park | Reviewed by Canaan Suitt, J.D. | Last updated on January 12, 2024 Featuring practical insights from contributing attorneys Daniel J. Kramer, Max W. Berger, Barry H. Berke and Robert S. Fink

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When corporate ethics have a run-in with the law, such as in securities fraud, the damage isn’t restricted to the boardroom. Just the hint of a Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) investigation or civil lawsuit can send stocks into freefall. Some cases mean a death sentence for a corporation (see: Enron), and even low-level employees can face prison time. 

“Greed is a growth industry, and always has been,” says Max W. Berger of Bernstein Litowitz Berger & Grossman in New York City. “For all the honest financial people in the world, there are many dishonest people looking for shortcuts to acquire wealth. I’ve been prosecuting security fraud cases for 43 years, and every time I think I’ve seen the worst of it, a few years later, something worse comes along.” 

[Securities fraud cases present] challenging questions and complicated markets.

Daniel J. Kramer

What Is Securities Fraud?

Securities fraud and investment fraud encompass a spectrum of wrongdoing, from embezzlement to insider trading to Ponzi schemes. One of its most basic forms involves corporate officers either willfully or recklessly giving investors faulty information or misrepresentations that influence them to buy or sell shares.

“Many of the matters we’ve been handling the past few years arose out of the financial crisis we just lived through,” says Daniel J. Kramer of Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison in New York. “These are challenging questions and complicated markets. It’s an exciting time.”

Greed is a growth industry, and always has been. For all the honest financial people in the world, there are many dishonest people looking for shortcuts to acquire wealth.

Max W. Berger

Fraud Exposed Through E-Communications

Technology makes it even more exciting. “Emails have brought about convictions that you wouldn’t have even been charged with before,” says Robert S. Fink of Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld.

“I worked with an individual in a fraud case a few years ago, and the one document the government was relying on was a joke from one of his supervisors, who forwarded an e-mail about new regulations and a crackdown on violators,” says Barry H. Berke of Kramer Levin Naftalis & Frankel. “He said in the [subject line], ‘This means you!!!!!’—with five exclamation points—clearly intended as a joke. That is not a helpful email for clients.”

I worked with an individual in a fraud case [where] the one document the government [relied] on was a joke from one of his supervisors, who forwarded an e-mail about new regulations and a crackdown on violators [with the subject line], ‘This means you!!!!!’—with five exclamation points—clearly intended as a joke. That is not a helpful email for clients.

Barry H. Berke

Fraud-On-The-Market Theory

A century ago, the phrase “securities fraud” didn’t mean much. There was no major federal law governing the trade of securities, which were covered by a variety of state laws of varying degrees of laxness. It took the 1929 stock market crash and the New Deal for the Securities Act of 1933 to set in stone the fundamental law of securities: complete and accurate disclosure.

Today, interpretation of that securities law is dominated by court rulings from the 1970s and 1980s, including Basic v. Levinson Inc. (1988), which established the fraud-on-the-market theory. It asserts that investors count on the trustworthiness of the market as a whole, and in an efficient market, securities prices will rely on all publicly available information from a company. So if a company puts out misleading statements about itself, it will distort prices.

Since the mid-1990s, however, various rules and laws have tightened the circumstances under which plaintiffs can pursue securities fraud lawsuits.

Emails have brought about convictions that you wouldn’t have even been charged with before… [For those looking to avoid securities prosecution]: Don’t take the tip.

Robert S. Fink

Risks in Bringing a Lawsuit

Investors who think their stock prices have dropped suspiciously should seek out a law firm and the advice of an attorney who specializes in securities litigation. They should also be aware of the risks:

  • Opposing counsel has the right to go through the plaintiffs’ email, phone, and other records;
  • Most cases are painstaking endeavors that take two to five years; and
  • There’s no guarantee of seeing a cent even if you win (the company might declare bankruptcy, for example).

As for avoiding the other side of the courtroom in a securities fraud trial? Much simpler. “Don’t take the tip,” says Fink.

For more information about this area, read our securities and corporate finance law overview.

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